Clean Room and Technical Equipment

© IMPT / Fischer

The scientific staff of the IMPT has a class ISO 5 clean room at their disposal to carry out their research activities. The extensive equipment allows the performance of microsystems engineering processes for the production and analysis of MEMS as well as reliability studies.

What does a clean room look like and which equipment is in it? Check it out on our virtual tour!

Technical Equipment

Thin Film Technology

  • Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

    With the AVIZA Phanteon 304, the institute owns a reliable instrument for the deposition of atomic layers.

  • Evaporation Deposition - Leybold LAB500plus

    Vapor deposition is a coating process with which different materials such as conductors, insulators or alloys can be deposited. The institute uses a Leybold Optics LAB500plus vapor deposition system, which features both an electron beam evaporator and a thermal evaporator.

    Technical details:

    • 4“-Substrates
    • Pt, Cr, Cu, SiO2, Al2O3, others on request
    • Evaporation
      • Electron beam evaporation
      • Thermal evaporation



    Jürgen Becker

  • Galvanization Baths

    Using the electroplating baths available at the IMPT, different metals can be deposited in microlayers. The baths are designed to accommodate wafers with a diameter of four inches. The galvanic bath consists of a storage tank and a cell, which are separated from each other by a filter system. The anode and cathode are arranged parallel to each other horizontally in the galvanic cell. The agitation of the electrolyte is realized by means of a horizontally moved paddle. The systems can be operated with DC or pulsed DC current (optionally with reverse current).

    Available baths:

    • Copper (Cu)
    • Nickel-Iron (81/19)
    • Nickel (Ni)
    • Cobalt-Iron(CoFe)
    • Gold (Au)
    • Tin (Sn)


    Technical details:

    • Elektrolyte volume: 10 Liter
    • Substrate size: Wafer, 4/6 in
    • Processtemperature: roomtemperature uo to 45°C
    • Powersupply: DC current or pulsed DC current (optionally reversed)


    In addition, electroless deposition is possible for following materials:

    • Copper
    • Nickel
    • Gold



    Maren Prediger, Alexander Kassner, Tim Bierwirth

  • Ion Beam Etching - Commonwealth Scientific Corporation

    is used to remove and structure thin layers. The process is a dry etching process. The material is removed purely physically by the impact of high-energy particles on a material surface. At the IMPT, an ion beam system from Commonwealth Scientific Corporation is used.

    Technical details:

    • 4“-Substrates
    • variable power output



    Jürgen Becker

  • Cathode Sputtering

    Using cathode sputtering (sputtering), thin to ultra-thin layers of different materials (mainly metals) in the range of a few nanometers to the low micrometer range can be deposited on a substrate. With the existing equipment, wafers with a diameter of 100 mm can be coated. Furthermore, different substrates can be sputtered, which are not in wafer form. For this purpose, however, they must not exceed the size of the target positions.

    Available Instruments:

    • MRC - 8 cathodes, 4''
    • Senvac - Z550
    • von Ardenne - Clustersystem CS 730 S
    • Kenotec - 8 cathodes, 6''
    • Scia - Mini40



    • Al2O3
    • AlFeSil
    • Au
    • Bi5N
    • CoCrTa
    • CoFe90/10
    • Cr
    • CrMnPt
    • Cu
    • FeTa
    • MnBi
    • NiFe35/65
    • NiFe45/55
    • NiFe81/19
    • NiMn
    • PZT
    • SmCo
    • Sputterglas
    • Ta
    • Ti



    Alexander Kassner,  Folke Dencker,  Daniel Klaas, Rico Ottermann

  • Mask Aligner - SÜSS MicroTec MA/BA6

    The mask aligner system MA-6 from Karl Süss is the standard photolithography system at the Institute of Microproduction Technology. It can be used to expose substrates from 4" to 6" with wavelengths of 405 nm as well as 365 nm. With the MA-6, a resolution of 0.6 µm is possible in vacuum mode.

    Technical details

    •  4“ / 6“ wafer
    • Mask size up to 7“
    • 405 nm and 365 nm wavelength
    • Contact-, flood-, and proximity exposure
    • Front and backside alignment



    Jasmin Görs, Matthias Arndt

  • Plasma Etching

    At the IMPT, a plasma system 4008 from PVA TePla AG is available. In a plasma, radicals are generated which are funneld to the reaction chamber and remove organic layers or impurities on the substrates by a chemical reaction without damaging or changing the surfaces mechanically. To remove the unneeded components on the substrate, both the gas flow and the composition of the process gas for plasma formation, as well as the generator power and the substrate temperature can be individually adjusted.

    Technical details:

    • Substrate size up to 300 x 300 mm / 0,09 m²
    • Process capacity up to 1600 Watt
    • min. pressure 2x10-² mbar
    • Process pressure 0,2 up to 2,0 mbar
    • 2 seperate, independently adjustable flux meters
    • Available gases:
      • N2
      • O2
      • CF4
    • Mikrowave plasmagenerator:
      • 2,45 GHertz
      • 2 x1000 watt



    Jürgen Becker

  • Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    PECVD - Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition is a process in which a thin, solid and, in the case of insulating materials, usually glass-like phase is deposited on a substrate by thermally and electrically excited impact ionization from gases or gas mixtures in a chemical reaction. The institute has an Oxford Instruments Plasmalab 80 Plus.

    Technical details:

    • deposition of e.g. SiO2, Si3N4, amorphe Si
    • Susceptor allows to process variable samples
    • Wafer size up to 4 in
    • LF-source: 50 kHz - 460 kHz, 600 W
    • RF-source: 13,56 MHz, 30/300 W
    • Frequency mixing possible



    Veronika Gladilova

  • Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) - Oxford Instruments Plasmalab System 100

    By means of the DRIE process, it is possible to etch structures in silicon with vertical wall pattern and high aspect ratio. Etching processes are often used in microsystem technology to produce mechanical structures in silicon. In addition to wet chemical processes, the "Bosch process" is widely used. By means of this iterative process, almost vertical wall patterns can be structured in silicon. At the IMPT, further attempts were made to structure monocrystalline silicon carbide. 

    Technical details:

    • 4"-Wafer (up to 8")
    • 3000 W ICP-source
    • 13,56 MHz, 300 W RF-parallel-plate capacitor
    • Other processes possible with modifications



    Alexander Kassner

  • Vacuum Oven

    Two devices are available to subject wafers, chips or components to a thermal treatment in vacuum or under inert gas atmosphere. The advantage is that there is virtually no oxygen in the recipient.

    Vacuum oven - Leybold Univex 450

    Vacuum hotplate (In-house manufactured)

  • Reactive ion beam etching – scia Mill 150

    Ion beam etching can be used to produce homogeneous and reproducible structuring of materials. The addition of reactive gases turns purely physical ion beam etching into a combination of a chemical and physical etching process. Reactive ion beam etching RIBE is used as a dry etching process for the structuring of microsystems.


    Technical details

    • Processing of 4“ and 6“ wafers
    • Substrate rotation 1 to 20 rpm, holder can be tilted in-situ from 0° to 165°
    • Optical endpoint detection
    • Available reactive gases: oxygen, chlorine, boron trichloride
    • CAIBE also possible in addition to IBE, RIBE



    Eva Raffalt

Mechanical Micro Machining

  • Chemical-Mechanical Polishing

    In chemical-mechanical polishing, in addition to the mechanical polishing, a chemical removal of the material to be polished is generated by the polishing suspension (slurry).

    At the IMPT, polishing machines are available for different wafer sizes. For CMP processes with larger substrate diameters and quantities, two semi-automatic CMP machines are available at the IMPT. The FLP Microfinishing 600 machine has a disc with a diameter of 600 mm (16") and two wafer chucks with rotary drive and pneumatic pressure control. This allows simultaneous processing of one 4" and one 6" wafer. Furthermore, lapping machines of the company P. Wolters are available, which can also be used for chemical-mechanical polishing of 4" wafers

    Available instrument: FLP600


    Christoph Künzler

  • 5-Axis CNC-Milling Machine

    The 5-axis milling machine DATRON C5 is used for the production of micromechanical components, moulds and prototypes as well as microsystem components made of materials such as stainless steel, copper or plastics. Cylindrical as well as cubic workpieces can be clamped and processed with a repeat accuracy of a few micrometers. The tool paths are programmed either directly on the machine or by means of 3D CAD/CAM programs and subsequent transfer of the data to the machine software.

    Technical details:

    • Processing spindle:: 1.8 kW, up to 48,000 1/min
    • Repeat Accuracy: < ± 2,5 μm
    • Tool changing system: 22-fold with tool length sensor
    • Travel (X x Y x Z): 153 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm



    Christoph Künzler

  • Lapping and Nano Grinding Machines

    For the surface processing of smaller substrates up to 4" diameter, the IMPT has four P. Wolters 3R40 lapping machines available. The machines accept discs with a maximum diameter of 400 mm (16"). The workpiece (substrate, chip) is mounted on a round tool holder and supported laterally by rubber rollers mounted in a holding arm (fork). The workpiece holder can either run along automatically (driven by the lapping wheel) or is rotated by a friction drive connected to the rubber roller of the fork. The contact pressure is adjusted by means of weights. Special additional equipment is available for the lapping machines, which makes it possible to convert the machine into a nano-grinding or full-fledged polishing machine. On the same machine, after lapping, highly polished surfaces of highest flatness and surface quality, free of any edge waste, can be produced. The lapping machine can be converted by replacing the special cast lapping wheel with an aluminium carrier wheel. A thin disc of copper, tin, tin-bismuth or plastic can be applied to the carrier disc. By means of special conditioning processes, abrasive grains are embedded in this soft coating, thus creating a grinding surface for nano grinding. The machine is prepared for the polishing process by sticking the appropriate polishing ink onto the carrier disc. The dressing or workpiece mounting rings must be replaced accordingly with rings with ceramic or polymer tipping to prevent discoloration of the workpiece surface and corrosion. Taking into account the chemical component in slurry and corrosion protection of the machine parts, CMP processes can also be carried out on the appropriately adapted machine.


    Esmail Asadi

  • Grinding and Polishing Machine QATM QPol 250 A2-ECO

    A grinding and polishing machine from QATM is available for metallographic sample preparation, which enables automatic processing of up to five specimens simultaneuosly. The specimens are first planarized in a grinding process and prepared for the subsequent polishing steps by means of increasingly fine-grained sandpaper. For this purpose, commercially available silicon carbide sandpapers in various grain sizes and water as a cooling lubricant are used. Polishing, on the other hand, uses loose diamond particles with sizes of less than ten micrometers, which roll over a fleece and generate an abrasion on contact with the sample surface. The aim of the process is often to obtain a cross section view of the sample. When examined in subsequent processes (e.g. microscopic examinations), the very smooth surface enables the visualization of the smallest structures and defects to be examined.

    Technical details:

    • Automatic mode (5 samples) or manual mode (1 sample).
    • Specimen size: < 35 mm
    • Working disc diameter: 250 mm



    Lukas Steinhoff

  • Dicing Machine - Disco DAC551, DAC-2SP

    High-precision structures in a wide variety of materials can be produced by abrasive cut-off wheels. This process, which is assigned to plane peripheral grinding, enables the separation of wafer chips in industrial applications as well as the production of structures primarily in hard and brittle materials. At the IMPT, mainly silicon is processed and microtechnological structures are separated on silicon. Furthermore, high-strength ceramics such as Al2O3, Al2O3-TiC, sapphire and silicon carbide are processed. A further field of application is "Thinning-by-dicing", whereby structures are first thinned to a certain thickness and then polished in a fine machining process.

    Technical details:

    • Accuracy of the axes: x-y-axis of the table < 3 µm
    • Repeat accuracy of the z-axis 1 µm / 5 mm
    • Maximum spindle speed up to 40,000 rpm
    • Working area 200 x 160 x 25 mm



    Matthias Arndt

  • Keyence Laser MD-U1000C

    Keyence's 3-axis UV marking laser is used to cut and structure a variety of materials at IMPT. The laser uses an ND:YVO4 solid-state laser source that emits UV laser radiation with a wavelength of 355 nm by performing second-harmonic generation. The power of the laser beam is 3 W at 40 kHz pulse frequency. The laser's marking resolution is 2 µm with a maximum scanning speed of 12,000 mm/s. The Keyence laser can cut foils, structure surfaces or be used for laser direct structuring. Laser direct structuring enables to produce a conductive layer on specific plastics by laser activation and electroless deposition. The Keyence laser system represents the middle process for laser direct structuring at the IMPT, which is completed by the institute's own injection molding equipment and electroless plating tanks.


    Technical details:

    • Laser type: Nd:YVO4 solid state laser

    • Wavelength: 355 nm

    • Output power: 3W @ 40 kHz

    • Frequency range: 40 to 400 kHz

    • Marking area: 125 x 125 x 42 mm3

    • Marking resolution: 2 µm



    Robin Basten, Tim Bierwirth

  • Laser processing system - Lightfab 3D Printer M

    The Lightfab 3D is a laser processing system for laser structuring, laser welding and laser-induced selective etching for the production of scalable technical systems based on functionalised diamond and glass. The system is equipped with an IR laser with adjustable pulse duration between 400 fs and 5 ps at a pulse energy of more than 15 µJ from 500 kHz. In addition, there is an absolute precision of +/- 500 nm over 200 mm for the xy-direction and +/- 1 µm over 150 mm for the z-direction. The Lightfab 3D enables macroscopic processing in the form of cutting and 3D structuring by local ablation. Furthermore, due to the very low pulse duration in the femtosecond range, 3D structures can be produced subtractively with an accuracy of ~1 µm in a two-step process. Due to the high energy density at the focal point, the etching properties of the material are first locally modified by the precise exposure with the fs laser. Subsequently, the exposed structures can be selectively removed by a wet chemical etching process in an ultrasonic bath. Furthermore, the hermetic joining of optically transparent peripheral components is possible.

    Technical details:

    • Laser with a wavelength of 1030 nm
    • Exposure area XY: 200 x 200 mm²; Z: 150 mm²
    • Precision XY: 150 nm; Z: 1 µm
    • Pulse duration: 400 fs - 5ps
    • Frequency: 100 kHz - 10 MHz
    • Pulse energy: > 15 µJ from 500 kHz
    • Materials e.g. diamond, quartz glass, borosilcate glass, sapphire



    Jannik Koch

System Packaging

  • 3D Printer

    The institute uses various 3D printers:

    • Fused Layer Modeling Process - Raise3D Pro 3 Plus with Dual Extruder
    • Fused Layer Modeling Process - INTAMSYS FUNMAT HT
    • Polyjet Process - Stratasys Objet30
    • Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process - OneClickMetal MPRINT+ and MPURE



    Robin Basten, Niklas Droese, Steffen Hadeler, Julian Petring

  • Bonding

    The institute uses several ways to bond:

    • Anodic bonding
    • Ultrasound bonding
    • Wedge bonding - F&K Delvotec 6400
    • Flip-Chip bonding - Finetech FINEPLACER® Lamda


  • Glass Soldering Furnace

    Glass soldering is based on a melting process of a thin glass layer. This can be applied to various components by various coating processes and the soldering process itself takes place under inert gas (usually nitrogen) at 735 °C. Depending on the composition and melting point of the glass solder, other temperature ranges in the furnace can also be used. A maximum temperature of 900 °C can be reached in a short time and the components to be joined can be pre-stressed by a clamping device. At the IMPT, soldering and tempering processes can be performed with this glass soldering furnace under normal atmosphere or nitrogen. The component size is limited by the furnace chamber to 40 mm x 40 mm x 10 mm. A special glass fusing furnace is used for brazing at temperatures of 800 - 1000 °C. At the IMPT, a Lindberg furnace is available, which consists of a long glass tube surrounded by a spiral hot plate and insulated with a ceramic jacket. Nitrogen is added to the glass tube to ensure a passive atmosphere during the firing process. The loading or unloading of the components is done by means of a special spindle device with adjustable tension springs. The control system allows temperature adjustment up to 1000 °C (nominal value). This furnace can be used for baking glass paintings or at higher temperatures for glass melting. The control system allows the programming of complex temperature profiles. Thus up to 4 individual segments can be programmed. Each segment consists of ramp and soak time.



    Folke Dencker

  • Laminator - Bungard RLM 419p

    For the lamination of wafers and samples (any structured surface, a maximum size of 450 mm width and endless length) with photo laminates, special laminates for solder resist masks, and other films, a laminator RLM 419p from Bungard Elektronik is available at the IMPT.

    By means of electrically heated pressure rollers with even temperature distribution, which is guaranteed by infrared scanning, and a continuously adjustable contact pressure, it is possible to laminate both commercially available photo laminates, moulded etched parts, and special laminates for solder resist masks or other applications. The separation of transport and heating rollers and the infinitely adjustable transport speed also ensure wrinkle-free lamination. The reversing function of the drive also enables a further process step to be carried out directly afterwards with a different contact pressure or temperature, in order to ensure optimum lamination.

    Technical details:

    • Lamination width: max. 400 mm
    • Transport width: max 440mm
    • Laminating speed: 0.2 - 1.2 m/min infinitely variable
    • Resist rollers: brakeable
    • Laminating pressure: adjustable via handwheel
    • Temperature range: 20 - 145 °C digitally adjustable
    • Panel thickness: 0.3 - 5 mm
    • Plate size: 50 x 50 mm to 450 x infinite mm



    Anatoly Glukhovskoy

  • Injection Moulding

    In the industry injection molding is frequently used to produce plastics in a predefined structure at low cost. At IMPT, the BOY 55 E VV injection molding machine is used to produce pre-structured plastic wafers in 4-inch format. During the injection molding process, plastic granulate is heated above the melting temperature or glass transition temperature and injected into a molding form. The plastic is then cooled and ejected. By using internally manufactured mold-inserts, a large number of pre-structured and identical plastic wafers can be produced at IMPT in a short time. The pre-structuring of the plastic substrates enables to skip cost-intensive process steps in microtechnology. At IMPT, optical waveguides, AMR sensors, GMR sensors, pressure membranes and magnetic components are manufactured on plastic substrates.

    Technical detail:

    • Injection screw diameter: 18 mm
    • Clamping force: 550 kN
    • Max. injection pressure: 2739 bar
    • Injection force: 86.5 kN
    • Max. screw stroke: 80 mm
    • Plastic granulate: PC, PEEK, LDS PEEK and others



    Tim Bierwirth

  • Vaccum Casting System - MK Technology MK Mini

    A vacuum casting system is available at the IMPT for molding and transferring structures down to the submicrometer range. It allows micro- and nanostructures to be replicated by molding and applied to technical surfaces. The Mk Mini - vacuum casting system from MK Technologiy® GmbH is suitable for the production of large-volume components thanks to its chamber size of 700 x 450 x 470 mm (H, W, D). The two swivel arms, coupled with a stirring device, enable silicones and casting resins to be mixed and cast under vacuum. This results in a short processing time. The vacuum pump installed on the system provides a working vacuum at the boundary between fine and rough vacuum of up to 1 mbar.

    Technical details:

    Chamber: 700 x 450 x 470 mm
    Process vacuum: 1 mbar



    Steffen Hadeler

Micro Tribology

  • Nanoindenter - Hysitron TI 900 Triboindenter

    Mechanical properties of surfaces down to a depth of 1 µm can be determined by nanoindentation. A defined force is applied via a diamond tip (Berkovich tip) and the modulus of elasticity and strength of the material are determined from the remaining indentation. At the IMPT, the mechanical properties of soft and very hard materials can be determined if conventional hardness measurement methods are no longer successful. The mechanical properties of high-strength ceramics, among others, can be determined. In addition, friction coefficients and layer adhesion between the diamond tip and the material can be detected by means of different tips (flat, conical), as well as by "acoustic emission" crystal transformations when force is applied.

    Technical details:

    • Maximum force for one indent: 8,000 µN
    • Maximum penetration depth: 5µm
    • Resolution of the force of an indent is  1 nN
    • Software-supported automation for long measurement series
    • AFM mode for creating surface profiles and roughness



    Folke Dencker

  • Tribometer

    The institute has a tribometer of the manufacturer Hysitron, as well as a tribometer with mechanical tester of the type UMT Tribolab (Bruker). A large vertical infeed range and the flexibility to use different sample geometries allow a versatile application of the tribometer. Tribological evaluations of systems with regard to friction and wear behaviour, as well as the effect of coatings and the characterisation of the tribosystem under load can be shown. By means of the high temperature cell all investigations can be carried out at up to 1000°C. The cell also allows investigations in different ambient atmospheres. All investigations can be carried out with a normal force of up to 10N and at up to 5000 rpm. Depending on the components to be investigated, standard sample holders or specially adapted sample holders can be used. Additionally, lubricant comparisons and ASTM standard tests such as ASTM G99, ASTM, ASTM, G132, ASTM D3702 can be performed.

    Technical details:

    • Speed: 0.1 to 5,000 rpm
    • Torque up to 5Nm
    • Sample diameter: 50mm
    • Control: Computer-aided
    • Chambers: High Temperature
    • Chamber Process gases: nitrogen, silane, argon



    Selina Raumel


  • Atomic force microscope - Jupiter XR AFM

    The IMPT has access to the Jupiter XR AFM, an atomic force microscope from Oxford Instruments that offers fast measurements and a large single scan range of 100 µm. With high-resolution imaging, the surface topography of a sample can be recorded in both contact and tapping modes. Furthermore, additional measurement methods can be enabled by further modules to be able to measure e.g. mechanical, magnetic or electrical properties.

    • Access to Samples with size up to 200 mm
    • Measuring range: X-Y 100 µm x 100 µm, Z 12 µm
    • Sensor Noise: X-Y < 150 pm, Z < 35 pm
    • Higher reproducibility through blueDrive™ excitation


    Contact: Sascha de Wall, Christoph KünzlerLukas Steinhoff

  • Laser-Doppler-Vibrometer - Polytex OFV-552

    Polytec's Laser Doppler Vibrometer can be used to measure the smallest vibrations down to the nanometer range. The LDV can display these in the time and frequency domain. Furthermore, it is possible to perform a surface scan by raster scanning and thus analyze the movement of surfaces. In addition, a stroboscope head is available, by means of which a vibration measurement in the plane can be performed.

    Technical details:

    • HeNe laser with a wavelength of 633 nm
    • Spot diameter minimum 16 µm
    • Scannable area approx. 1 mm²
    • Extensive evaluation software
    • Measurement in the plane by means of a stroboscope head possible



    Anatoly Glukhovskoy

  • Scanning electron microscopy

    The institute is equipped with two scanning electron microscopes for different applications:

    SEM Zeiss LEO 1455VP with Oxford EDX

    The LEO 1455VP is a variable pressure research scanning electron microscope designed to accommodate large, oversized and bulky specimens for non-destructive imaging and analysis. The large chamber, measuring 340 mm x 300 mm x 279 mm, allows samples up to 230 mm in diameter to be fully analysed. In addition, the fully motorised five-axis precision stage can be tilted up to 90 degrees to view samples from the side. The SEM has a thermal electron source in the form of a tungsten cathode and can be operated with an accelerating voltage of up to 30 kV. With the thermal electron source, a high beam current can be generated, which is required to image the chemical composition and element distribution in a sample with spatial resolution by means of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). An EDX detector from Oxford (Ultim-Max 40) with associated software is used for this purpose. The SEM is also equipped with an electron beam lithography unit, which allows entire wafers (100 mm) to be exposed directly through the electron beam with high precision. Due to its versatile equipment and fields of application, the LEO 1455VP is used daily in the IMPT.

    Technical Details:

    • SEM with a lateral resolving power of 5 nm
    • 0.2 to 30 kV accelerating voltage
    • Conventional tungsten cathode
    • Detectors: SE chamber detector (ET), 4Q-BSE detector, VPSE detector and EDX detector
    • Ultim-Max 40 EDX from Oxford with AZtec software
    • 5 axes motorised stage (X, Y, Z, T, R)
    • CCD camera for sample positioning
    • Examination of large samples (up to 230 mm diameter)


    FE-SEM-FIB dual beam system Zeiss NEON 40 EsB

    The combination of a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) with a focused Ga-ion beam (FIB) in form of the NEON 40 EsB, results in a high-precision Swiss Army knife for nanotechnologists. The Schottky field emitter electron source coupled with the GEMINI electron optics and the various chamber and inlens detectors enable high-resolution analysis and imaging. Furthermore, in addition to the electron column, the Crossbeam instrument has an ion column capable of generating a focused ion beam from a gallium liquid metal ion source. The heavy gallium ions can be used for imaging, but above all offer the possibility of matrial processing. Crossbeam devices allow samples at the coincidence point to be simultaneously processed with the ion beam and observed with the electron beam, making it possible to precisely prepare defects, areas of interest and, for example, TEM lamellae. With the additional gas injection system (GIS), materials can also be deposited and etching characteristics can be influenced. Furthermore, the IMPT has two micromanipulators which can be positioned and moved with an accuracy in the nanometre range. The IMPT also has a micromanipulator that can be positioned and moved with nanometre precision. The NEON 40 EsB is used in the IMPT for a wide range of special applications and is also used whenever the resolving power of the LEO 1455 VP is no longer sufficient.

    Technical details:

    • FE-SEM with a resolution of 1.1 nm (at 20 kV) or 2.5 nm (at 1kV)
    • 0.1 to 30 kV accelerating voltage
    • Schottky field emitter with ZrO reservoir
    • Detectors: SE-chamber detector (ET), SE-Inlens detector, EsB detector, with filter grid for BSE and STEM detector (BF and DF)
    • 6 axes fully eucentric stage (X, Y, Z, T, R, M)
    • Two CCD cameras for positioning and process control
    • 80 mm airlock for fast sample transfer
    • Canion-FIB with 7 nm resolution
    • Ga-LMIS with 2 to 30 kV accelerating voltage
    • GIS 5-fold (tungsten, platinum, xenon, difluoride, water, carbon)
    • Kleindiek micromanipulators with LCMK, RoTip, MGS2 and iLO extension



    Julian Petring, Sascha de Wall

  • Confocal Raman Microscope WITec alpha300 apyron

    The alpha300 apyron from WITec provides the IMPT with a highly automated confocal Raman microscope for high-end spectroscopy applications and confocal Raman imaging: 

    The Raman microscope combines conventional light microscopy with unique chemical identification by Raman spectroscopy. Both techniques are very powerful on their own, but in combination they offer the possibility to chemically analyse even the smallest objects (> 0.5 µm) and to link spectral with spatial data. Excitation wavelengths in the visible range of light are used for this purpose, making it fully compatible with glass optics. Therefore, the microscope is based on a high-quality optical microscope.

    Raman has several key advantages over other absorption-based vibrational spectroscopy techniques such as FT-IR and FT-NIR. Unlike absorption, the Raman effect is based on the inelastic scattering of light. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy requires little or no sample preparation when measuring solids, liquids and gases. Moreover, the sample can be analysed not only directly but also through transparent materials such as glass and plastic. Since water also has only a very weak Raman signal, Raman spectroscopy can also analyse compounds dissolved in water without strong interference.

    The alpha300 apyron is the high-end product in WITec's portfolio of Raman imaging systems. With high speed, this new highly automated generation delivers reproducible results with high signal sensitivity and resolution.

    Three different lasers with wavelengths of 405, 532 and 633 nm are available as excitation sources at the IMPT. A motorised multi-wavelength laser coupler enables convenient and software-controlled switching between the excitation wavelengths from UV to NIR without manual intervention in the beam path. Thus, all optical components are automatically aligned to achieve the highest possible resolution. The continuous laser power adjustment TruePower allows software adjustment of the relative laser power. 

    The UHTS600 spectrometer is used for Raman spectroscopy. It is a line-based imaging spectrometer with FC/APC fibre input and triple grating holder, optimised for highest optical throughput at 450 nm to 750 nm and highest spectral precision. Spectroscopic gratings with 300, 1800 and 2400 lines/mm are available for this purpose. In our system, a highly sensitive Bi-EMCCD camera replaces the conventional CCD, allowing readout speeds to be increased from 250 spectra/s up to 1300 spectra/s. 

    Four high-class objectives from Zeiss with a magnification of up to 150x and a numerical aperture of 0.95 are available on the device, which have a high transmission in the range from 360 nm to approx. 1000 nm. In order to operate the device within laser protection class 1M, it has stray light protection with coded magnetic switches. 

    At the IMPT, we also have an extension for antibunching measurements with two APDs to characterise for example single-photon emitter systems. Furthermore, the samples can be cooled down to 3.2 K during the measurements using a microstat from Oxford with helium.  

    Technical Details:

    • Motorised 6-position objective revolver.
    • Köhler illumination (brightfield) with motorised field and aperture shutters
    • Lift stage with 5-phase stepper motor with 10 nm step size
    • Motorised x-y sample positioner with 25 nm step size
    • Motorised camera coupler and multi-wavelength laser coupler
    • Motorised multi-output coupler with AutoBeam Output Adjustment Unit (OAU)
    • Calibration source for automatic spectrometer calibration
    • EasyLink controller for simple and intuitive operation
    • 405 nm diode laser (class 3B) with LP Raman filter, LL filter and TruePower
    • 532 nm DPSS laser (class 3B) with LP Raman filter, LL filter and TruePower
    • 633 nm diode laser (class 3B) with LP Raman filter, LL filter and TruePower
    • Ultra-high-throughput spectrometer UHTS600 with triple grating holder
    • Spectroscopic gratings with 300, 1800 and 2400 lines/mm 
    • High sensitivity BI-EMCCD camera with up to 1300 spectra/s
    • Objective 10x from Zeiss EC Epiplan DIC with 0.25 NA
    • Objective 50x from Zeiss EC Epiplan DIC with 0.75 NA
    • Objective 100x from Zeiss EC Epiplan-Neofluar DIC with 0.90 NA
    • Objective 10x from Zeiss EC Epiplan-Apochromat with 0.95 NA
    • Stray light protection with coded magnetic switches for LSK 1M operation
    • Antibunching extension with MultiHarp, two APDs, decouplers, beam splitter, filter sliders and additional optical light guides
    • Oxford Microstat He2 for temperatures from 3.2 K to 500 K 
    • WITec Control and Project FIVE software package
    • TrueMatch software extension for database management
    • High-performance PC for data acquisition



    Anatoly Glukhovskoy, Julian Petring, Melanie Wirtz

  • Ellipsometer - Sentech SENpro

    With the SENpro from SENTECH, the IMPT has an ellipsometer at its fingertips for characterizing transparent layers. For this purpose, polarized light is irradiated onto the sample at specific points. Reflection or transmission of the light at a layer causes changes in the polarization state, which provide information about the existing layers. In addition to the layer thickness, the refractive index of deposited layers can be determined. It is also possible to analyze layer stacks of different materials, as long as the exact structure is known. In addition, a so-called mapping can be performed, in which the device automatically measures the wafer in previously defined areas. Mapping can be used, for example, to make statements about the homogeneity of deposition or etching processes.

    Technical Details:

    • Maximum wafer size: 6 in.
    • Wavelength spectrum from 370nm to 1050nm
    • Round and rectangular substrates can be examined
    • Measurement angle between 40° and 90° (in 5° steps)



    Lauritz Keinert

  • Height Sensors

    For height measurements of different structures two height probes are available:

    • Contact Height Probe - Heidenhain CT60

    By moving the probe tip vertically, the distance between a marble tabletop and the surface of the workpiece can be determined very accurately (±0.2 µm)

    • Non-contact height sensor - Keyence LK-H052

    The digital height sensor allows a contactless measuring of the height and the recording of the height profile.

  • Magnetic Characterization

    The following instruments are available to characterize the magnetic properties of a sample:

    • Magneto-optical microscope - Evicomagnetics + Matesy
    • Vibration Magnetometer - Lake SHore Crytronics, Inc., Model 7407 with SSVT unit


  • Mechanical Characterization

    For the characterization of some mechanical properties of samples the following instruments are available:

    • Force stand - Mecmesin MultiTest 2.5-xt, Mecmesin ILC-S 50N
    • Tensile test stand - Royce Instruments System 552
    • shear testers
  • Surface Characterization

    For the characterization of the surface properties of a sample the following instruments are available:

    • Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) - Jupiter XR AFM
    • Confocal microscope - Keyence VK-9700
    • Surface profilometer - Veeco Dektak³ST
    • Scanning electron microscope - Jeol REM with EDX & ELFI
    • White light interferometer
    • Optical 3D Profilometer Keyence VR3200

Other Equipment

  • GloveBox

    The institute has a GS Mega 2 glovebox (GS Glovebox Systemtechnik) for the production and examination of samples in an oxygen-free atmosphere.

    The glovebox is made of stainless steel 1.4301. It can be flooded with nitrogen in a controlled manner and evacuated by means of a vacuum unit, so that an oxygen content of less than 1 ppm can be achieved. This enables, for example, the processing of flammable substances. Furthermore, the oxidation of metallic samples can be prevented. The airlock, which can also be flushed with nitrogen, allows rapid loading and unloading of samples or other utensils without interrupting the oxygen-free atmosphere.

    Technical details:

    • High-quality workmanship according to ISO 9001:2008
    • Leak test according to ISO 10648-2, class 1
    • Two gloves
    • HEPA H14 filter
    • High-performance yellow light LED
    • Nitrogen supply Vacuum unit Chamber dimensions about: 75 cm x 120 cm x 90 cm
    • Chamber volume about: 0,8 m³
    • Lock diameter or length approx.: 40 cm or 50 cm
    • Lock volume approx.: 0.2 m
  • Thermal Shock Chamber

    The thermal shock chamber VT³ 7006 S2 (Vötsch Industrietechnik) is used for fast, cyclical temperature loading of samples. The chamber is automatically moved to a warm or cold area of defined temperature. Thus, for example, the temperature resistance of coatings can be tested with regard to their adhesive strength or the suitability of coatings for protection against oxidation. A cabling leading into the chamber from outside also allows real-time measurement of electrical parameters such as voltage or resistance. This allows the characterization of sensors and actuators with respect to their temperature properties.

    Technical details:

    • Test chamber volume: 60 l
    • Test chamber dimensions: 370 mm x 380 mm x 430 mm
    • Temperature range hot chamber: +50 °C to +220 °C
    • Temperature range cold chamber: -80 °C to +70 °C
    • Maximum temperature deviation: 1 °C
    • Switching time between hot/cold chamber: < 10 s



    Jürgen Becker, Rico Ottermann