Clean Room and Equipment

Clean Room and Technical Equipment

© IMPT / Fischer

The scientific staff of the IMPT has a class ISO 5 clean room at their disposal to carry out their research activities. The extensive equipment allows the performance of microsystems engineering processes for the production and analysis of MEMS as well as reliability studies.

What does a clean room look like and which equipment is in it? Check it out on our virtual tour!


Thin Film Technology

  • Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

    With the AVIZA Phanteon 304, the institute owns a reliable instrument for the deposition of atomic layers.

  • Evaporation Deposition - Leybold LAB500plus

    Vapor deposition is a coating process with which different materials such as conductors, insulators or alloys can be deposited. The institute uses a Leybold Optics LAB500plus vapor deposition system, which features both an electron beam evaporator and a thermal evaporator.

    Technical details:

    • 4“-Substrates
    • Pt, Cr, Cu, SiO2, Al2O3, others on request
    • Evaporation
      • Electron beam evaporation
      • Thermal evaporation



    Jürgen Becker

  • Galvanization Baths

    Using the electroplating baths available at the IMPT, different metals can be deposited in microlayers. The baths are designed to accommodate wafers with a diameter of four inches. The galvanic bath consists of a storage tank and a cell, which are separated from each other by a filter system. The anode and cathode are arranged parallel to each other horizontally in the galvanic cell. The agitation of the electrolyte is realized by means of a horizontally moved paddle. The systems can be operated with DC or pulsed DC current (optionally with reverse current).

    Available baths:

    • Copper (Cu)
    • Nickel-Iron (81/19)
    • Nickel (Ni)
    • Cobalt-Iron(CoFe)
    • Gold (Au)
    • Tin (Sn)


    Technical details:

    • Elektrolyte volume: 10 Liter
    • Substrate size: Wafer, 4/6 in
    • Processtemperature: roomtemperature uo to 45°C
    • Powersupply: DC current or pulsed DC current (optionally reversed)



    Maren Prediger, Alexander Kassner

  • Ion Beam Etching - Commonwealth Scientific Corporation

    is used to remove and structure thin layers. The process is a dry etching process. The material is removed purely physically by the impact of high-energy particles on a material surface. At the IMPT, an ion beam system from Commonwealth Scientific Corporation is used.

    Technical details:

    • 4“-Substrates
    • variable power output



    Eike Fischer

  • Cathode Sputtering

    Using cathode sputtering (sputtering), thin to ultra-thin layers of different materials (mainly metals) in the range of a few nanometers to the low micrometer range can be deposited on a substrate. With the existing equipment, wafers with a diameter of 100 mm can be coated. Furthermore, different substrates can be sputtered, which are not in wafer form. For this purpose, however, they must not exceed the size of the target positions.

    Available Instruments:

    • MRC - 8 cathodes, 4''
    • Senvac - Z550
    • von Ardenne - Clustersystem CS 730 S
    • Kenotec - 8 cathodes, 6''
    • Scia - Mini40



    • Al2O3
    • AlFeSil
    • Au
    • Bi5N
    • CoCrTa
    • CoFe90/10
    • Cr
    • CrMnPt
    • Cu
    • FeTa
    • MnBi
    • NiFe35/65
    • NiFe45/55
    • NiFe81/19
    • NiMn
    • PZT
    • SmCo
    • Sputterglas
    • Ta
    • Ti



    Alexander Kassner,  Folke Dencker,  Daniel Klaas, Rico Ottermann

  • Mask Aligner - SÜSS MicroTex MA/BA6

    [Translate to English:] Die Maskenjustieranlage MA-6 der Firma Karl Süss stellt die standardmäßige Fotolithografieanlage am Institut für Mikroproduktionstechnik dar. Hiermit können Substrate von 4“ bis 6“ sowohl mit Wellenlängen von 405 nm als auch 365 nm belichtet werden. Mit der MA-6 lassen sich Strukturen mit Kantenlängen bis zu 10 µm belichten.

    Technical details

    •  4“ / 6“ wafer
    • Mask size up to 7“
    • 405 nm and 365 nm wavelength
    • Contact-, flood-, and proximity exposure
    • Front and backside alignment



    Jasmin Görs, Matthias Arndt

  • Plasma Etching

    At the IMPT, a plasma system 4008 from PVA TePla AG is available. In a plasma, radicals are generated which are funneld to the reaction chamber and remove organic layers or impurities on the substrates by a chemical reaction without damaging or changing the surfaces mechanically. To remove the unneeded components on the substrate, both the gas flow and the composition of the process gas for plasma formation, as well as the generator power and the substrate temperature can be individually adjusted.

    Technical details:

    • Substrate size up to 300 x 300 mm / 0,09 m²
    • Process capacity up to 1600 Watt
    • min. pressure 2x10-² mbar
    • Process pressure 0,2 up to 2,0 mbar
    • 2 seperate, independently adjustable flux meters
    • Available gases:
      • N2
      • O2
      • CF4
    • Mikrowave plasmagenerator:
      • 2,45 GHertz
      • 2 x1000 watt



    Jürgen Becker

  • Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    PECVD - Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition is a process in which a thin, solid and, in the case of insulating materials, usually glass-like phase is deposited on a substrate by thermally and electrically excited impact ionization from gases or gas mixtures in a chemical reaction. The institute has an Oxford Instruments Plasmalab 80 Plus.

    Technical details:

    • deposition of e.g. SiO2, Si3N4, amorphe Si
    • Susceptor allows to process variable samples
    • Wafer size up to 4 in
    • LF-source: 50 kHz - 460 kHz, 600 W
    • RF-source: 13,56 MHz, 30/300 W
    • Frequency mixing possible



    Veronika Gladilova

  • Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) - Oxford Instruments Plasmalab System 100

    By means of the DRIE process, it is possible to etch structures in silicon with vertical wall pattern and high aspect ratio. Etching processes are often used in microsystem technology to produce mechanical structures in silicon. In addition to wet chemical processes, the "Bosch process" is widely used. By means of this iterative process, almost vertical wall patterns can be structured in silicon. At the IMPT, further attempts were made to structure monocrystalline silicon carbide. 

    Technical details:

    • 4"-Wafer (up to 8")
    • 3000 W ICP-source
    • 13,56 MHz, 300 W RF-parallel-plate capacitor
    • Other processes possible with modifications



    Esmail Asadi

  • Vacuum Oven

    Two devices are available to subject wafers, chips or components to a thermal treatment in vacuum or under inert gas atmosphere. The advantage is that there is virtually no oxygen in the recipient.

    Vacuum oven - Leybold Univex 450

    Vacuum hotplate (In-house manufactured)

Mechanical Micro Machining

  • Chemical-Mechanical Polishing

    In chemical-mechanical polishing, in addition to the mechanical polishing, a chemical removal of the material to be polished is generated by the polishing suspension (slurry).

    At the IMPT, polishing machines are available for different wafer sizes. For CMP processes with larger substrate diameters and quantities, two semi-automatic CMP machines are available at the IMPT. The FLP Microfinishing 600 machine has a disc with a diameter of 600 mm (16") and two wafer chucks with rotary drive and pneumatic pressure control. This allows simultaneous processing of one 4" and one 6" wafer. Furthermore, lapping machines of the company P. Wolters are available, which can also be used for chemical-mechanical polishing of 4" wafers

    Available instrument: FLP600


    Esmail Asadi

  • 5-Axis CNC-Milling Machine

    The 5-axis milling machine DATRON C5 is used for the production of micromechanical components, moulds and prototypes as well as microsystem components made of materials such as stainless steel, copper or plastics. Cylindrical as well as cubic workpieces can be clamped and processed with a repeat accuracy of a few micrometers. The tool paths are programmed either directly on the machine or by means of 3D CAD/CAM programs and subsequent transfer of the data to the machine software.

    Technical details:

    • Processing spindle:: 1.8 kW, up to 48,000 1/min
    • Repeat Accuracy: < ± 2,5 μm
    • Tool changing system: 22-fold with tool length sensor
    • Travel (X x Y x Z): 153 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm



    Esmail Asadi

  • Lapping and Nano Grinding Machines

    For the surface processing of smaller substrates up to 4" diameter, the IMPT has four P. Wolters 3R40 lapping machines available. The machines accept discs with a maximum diameter of 400 mm (16"). The workpiece (substrate, chip) is mounted on a round tool holder and supported laterally by rubber rollers mounted in a holding arm (fork). The workpiece holder can either run along automatically (driven by the lapping wheel) or is rotated by a friction drive connected to the rubber roller of the fork. The contact pressure is adjusted by means of weights. Special additional equipment is available for the lapping machines, which makes it possible to convert the machine into a nano-grinding or full-fledged polishing machine. On the same machine, after lapping, highly polished surfaces of highest flatness and surface quality, free of any edge waste, can be produced. The lapping machine can be converted by replacing the special cast lapping wheel with an aluminium carrier wheel. A thin disc of copper, tin, tin-bismuth or plastic can be applied to the carrier disc. By means of special conditioning processes, abrasive grains are embedded in this soft coating, thus creating a grinding surface for nano grinding. The machine is prepared for the polishing process by sticking the appropriate polishing ink onto the carrier disc. The dressing or workpiece mounting rings must be replaced accordingly with rings with ceramic or polymer tipping to prevent discoloration of the workpiece surface and corrosion. Taking into account the chemical component in slurry and corrosion protection of the machine parts, CMP processes can also be carried out on the appropriately adapted machine.


    Esmail Asadi

  • Dicing Machine - Disco DAC551, DAC-2SP

    High-precision structures in a wide variety of materials can be produced by abrasive cut-off wheels. This process, which is assigned to plane peripheral grinding, enables the separation of wafer chips in industrial applications as well as the production of structures primarily in hard and brittle materials. At the IMPT, mainly silicon is processed and microtechnological structures are separated on silicon. Furthermore, high-strength ceramics such as Al2O3, Al2O3-TiC, sapphire and silicon carbide are processed. A further field of application is "Thinning-by-dicing", whereby structures are first thinned to a certain thickness and then polished in a fine machining process.

    Technical details:

    • Accuracy of the axes: x-y-axis of the table < 3 µm
    • Repeat accuracy of the z-axis 1 µm / 5 mm
    • Maximum spindle speed up to 40,000 rpm
    • Working area 200 x 160 x 25 mm



    Matthias Arndt

System Packaging

  • 3D Printer

    The institute uses two 3D printers:

    • Ultimaker
  • Bonding

    The institute uses several ways to bond:

    • Anodic bonding
    • Ultrasound bonding
    • Wedge bonding - F&K Delvotec 6400
    • Flip-Chip bonding - Finetech FINEPLACER® Lamda



  • Glass Soldering Furnace

    Glass soldering is based on a melting process of a thin glass layer. This can be applied to various components by various coating processes and the soldering process itself takes place under inert gas (usually nitrogen) at 735 °C. Depending on the composition and melting point of the glass solder, other temperature ranges in the furnace can also be used. A maximum temperature of 900 °C can be reached in a short time and the components to be joined can be pre-stressed by a clamping device. At the IMPT, soldering and tempering processes can be performed with this glass soldering furnace under normal atmosphere or nitrogen. The component size is limited by the furnace chamber to 40 mm x 40 mm x 10 mm. A special glass fusing furnace is used for brazing at temperatures of 800 - 1000 °C. At the IMPT, a Lindberg furnace is available, which consists of a long glass tube surrounded by a spiral hot plate and insulated with a ceramic jacket. Nitrogen is added to the glass tube to ensure a passive atmosphere during the firing process. The loading or unloading of the components is done by means of a special spindle device with adjustable tension springs. The control system allows temperature adjustment up to 1000 °C (nominal value). This furnace can be used for baking glass paintings or at higher temperatures for glass melting. The control system allows the programming of complex temperature profiles. Thus up to 4 individual segments can be programmed. Each segment consists of ramp and soak time.



    Folke Dencker

  • Laminator - Bungard RLM 419p

    For the lamination of wafers and samples (any structured surface, a maximum size of 450 mm width and endless length) with photo laminates, special laminates for solder resist masks, and other films, a laminator RLM 419p from Bungard Elektronik is available at the IMPT.

    By means of electrically heated pressure rollers with even temperature distribution, which is guaranteed by infrared scanning, and a continuously adjustable contact pressure, it is possible to laminate both commercially available photo laminates, moulded etched parts, and special laminates for solder resist masks or other applications. The separation of transport and heating rollers and the infinitely adjustable transport speed also ensure wrinkle-free lamination. The reversing function of the drive also enables a further process step to be carried out directly afterwards with a different contact pressure or temperature, in order to ensure optimum lamination.

    Technical details:

    • Lamination width: max. 400 mm
    • Transport width: max 440mm
    • Laminating speed: 0.2 - 1.2 m/min infinitely variable
    • Resist rollers: brakeable
    • Laminating pressure: adjustable via handwheel
    • Temperature range: 20 - 145 °C digitally adjustable
    • Panel thickness: 0.3 - 5 mm
    • Plate size: 50 x 50 mm to 450 x infinite mm



    Anatoly Glukhovskoy

  • Injection Moulding

    In the industry injection molding is frequently used to produce plastics in a predefined structure at low cost. At IMPT, the BOY 55 E VV injection molding machine is used to produce pre-structured plastic wafers in 4-inch format. During the injection molding process, plastic granulate is heated above the melting temperature or glass transition temperature and injected into a molding form. The plastic is then cooled and ejected. By using internally manufactured mold-inserts, a large number of pre-structured and identical plastic wafers can be produced at IMPT in a short time. The pre-structuring of the plastic substrates enables to skip cost-intensive process steps in microtechnology. At IMPT, optical waveguides, AMR sensors, GMR sensors, pressure membranes and magnetic components are manufactured on plastic substrates.

    Technical detail:

    • Injection screw diameter: 18 mm
    • Clamping force: 550 kN
    • Max. injection pressure: 2739 bar
    • Injection force: 86.5 kN
    • Max. screw stroke: 80 mm
    • Plastic granulate: PC, PEEK, LDS PEEK and others



    Tim Bierwirth

  • Vaccum Casting System - MK Technology MK Mini

    A vacuum casting system is available at the IMPT for molding and transferring structures down to the submicrometer range. It allows micro- and nanostructures to be replicated by molding and applied to technical surfaces. The Mk Mini - vacuum casting system from MK Technologiy® GmbH is suitable for the production of large-volume components thanks to its chamber size of 700 x 450 x 470 mm (H, W, D). The two swivel arms, coupled with a stirring device, enable silicones and casting resins to be mixed and cast under vacuum. This results in a short processing time. The vacuum pump installed on the system provides a working vacuum at the boundary between fine and rough vacuum of up to 1 mbar.

    Technical details:

    Chamber: 700 x 450 x 470 mm
    Process vacuum: 1 mbar



    Eike Fischer

Micro Tribology

  • Nanoindenter - Hysitron TI 900 Triboindenter

    Mechanical properties of surfaces down to a depth of 1 µm can be determined by nanoindentation. A defined force is applied via a diamond tip (Berkovich tip) and the modulus of elasticity and strength of the material are determined from the remaining indentation. At the IMPT, the mechanical properties of soft and very hard materials can be determined if conventional hardness measurement methods are no longer successful. The mechanical properties of high-strength ceramics, among others, can be determined. In addition, friction coefficients and layer adhesion between the diamond tip and the material can be detected by means of different tips (flat, conical), as well as by "acoustic emission" crystal transformations when force is applied.

    Technical details:

    • Maximum force for one indent: 8,000 µN
    • Maximum penetration depth: 5µm
    • Resolution of the force of an indent is  1 nN
    • Software-supported automation for long measurement series
    • AFM mode for creating surface profiles and roughness



    Folke Dencker

  • Tribometer

    The institute has a tribometer of the manufacturer Hysitron, as well as a tribometer with mechanical tester of the type UMT Tribolab (Bruker). A large vertical infeed range and the flexibility to use different sample geometries allow a versatile application of the tribometer. Tribological evaluations of systems with regard to friction and wear behaviour, as well as the effect of coatings and the characterisation of the tribosystem under load can be shown. By means of the high temperature cell all investigations can be carried out at up to 1000°C. The cell also allows investigations in different ambient atmospheres. All investigations can be carried out with a normal force of up to 10N and at up to 5000 rpm. Depending on the components to be investigated, standard sample holders or specially adapted sample holders can be used. Additionally, lubricant comparisons and ASTM standard tests such as ASTM G99, ASTM, ASTM, G132, ASTM D3702 can be performed.

    Technical details:

    • Speed: 0.1 to 5,000 rpm
    • Torque up to 5Nm
    • Sample diameter: 50mm
    • Control: Computer-aided
    • Chambers: High Temperature
    • Chamber Process gases: nitrogen, silane, argon



    Selina Raumel


  • Laser-Doppler-Vibrometer - Polytex OFV-552

    Polytec's Laser Doppler Vibrometer can be used to measure the smallest vibrations down to the nanometer range. The LDV can display these in the time and frequency domain. Furthermore, it is possible to perform a surface scan by raster scanning and thus analyze the movement of surfaces. In addition, a stroboscope head is available, by means of which a vibration measurement in the plane can be performed.

    Technical details:

    • HeNe laser with a wavelength of 633 nm
    • Spot diameter minimum 16 µm
    • Scannable area approx. 1 mm²
    • Extensive evaluation software
    • Measurement in the plane by means of a stroboscope head possible



    Anatoly Glukhovskoy

  • Hight Sensors

    For height measurements of different structures two height probes are available:

    • Contact Height Probe - Heidenhain CT60

    By moving the probe tip vertically, the distance between a marble tabletop and the surface of the workpiece can be determined very accurately (±0.2 µm)

    • Non-contact height sensor - Keyence LK-H052

    The digital height sensor allows a contactless measuring of the height and the recording of the height profile.

  • Magnetic Characterization

    The following instruments are available to characterize the magnetic properties of a sample:

    • Magneto-optical microscope - Evicomagnetics + Matesy
    • Vibration Magnetometer - Lake SHore Crytronics, Inc., Model 7407 with SSVT unit



  • Mechanical Characterization

    For the characterization of some mechanical properties of samples the following instruments are available:

    • Force stand - Mecmesin MultiTest 2.5-xt, Mecmesin ILC-S 50N
    • Tensile test stand - Royce Instruments System 552
    • shear testers
  • Surface Characterization

    For the characterization of the surface properties of a sample the following instruments are available:

    • Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) - Topometrix TMXC 2000
    • Confocal microscope - Keyence VK-9700
    • Surface profilometer - Veeco Dektak³ST
    • Scanning electron microscope - Jeol REM with EDX & ELFI
    • White light interferometer

Other Equipment

  • GloveBox

    The institute has a GS Mega 2 glovebox (GS Glovebox Systemtechnik) for the production and examination of samples in an oxygen-free atmosphere.

    The glovebox is made of stainless steel 1.4301. It can be flooded with nitrogen in a controlled manner and evacuated by means of a vacuum unit, so that an oxygen content of less than 1 ppm can be achieved. This enables, for example, the processing of flammable substances. Furthermore, the oxidation of metallic samples can be prevented. The airlock, which can also be flushed with nitrogen, allows rapid loading and unloading of samples or other utensils without interrupting the oxygen-free atmosphere.

    Technical details:

    • High-quality workmanship according to ISO 9001:2008
    • Leak test according to ISO 10648-2, class 1
    • Two gloves
    • HEPA H14 filter
    • High-performance yellow light LED
    • Nitrogen supply Vacuum unit Chamber dimensions about: 75 cm x 120 cm x 90 cm
    • Chamber volume about: 0,8 m³
    • Lock diameter or length approx.: 40 cm or 50 cm
    • Lock volume approx.: 0.2 m
  • Thermal Shock Chamber

    The thermal shock chamber VT³ 7006 S2 (Vötsch Industrietechnik) is used for fast, cyclical temperature loading of samples. The chamber is automatically moved to a warm or cold area of defined temperature. Thus, for example, the temperature resistance of coatings can be tested with regard to their adhesive strength or the suitability of coatings for protection against oxidation. A cabling leading into the chamber from outside also allows real-time measurement of electrical parameters such as voltage or resistance. This allows the characterization of sensors and actuators with respect to their temperature properties.

    Technical details:

    • Test chamber volume: 60 l
    • Test chamber dimensions: 370 mm x 380 mm x 430 mm
    • Temperature range hot chamber: +50 °C to +220 °C
    • Temperature range cold chamber: -80 °C to +70 °C
    • Maximum temperature deviation: 1 °C
    • Switching time between hot/cold chamber: < 10 s



    Jürgen Becker, Rico Ottermann